LysetTM is manufactured by Sclavo Diagnostics International S.r.l. on Biorigen S.r.l. licence


an “off the shelf”, fully standardized and lyophilized, human platelet derived cell culture supplement.


is being utilized to replace animal and human serum such as Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in culture medium formulation for different types of cells.


the possibility of mixing the two supplement components (PL, human platelet lysate from Platelet Rich Plasma and AD, human Platelet Poor Plasma) in different percentages, allows the supplement customization and optimization for each cell type.


References on Platelet Lysate for Cell Culture

1-El Backly R, Ulivi V, Tonachini L, Cancedda R, Descalzi F and Mastrogiacomo M. Platelet Lysate Induces In Vitro Wound Healing of Human Keratinocytes Associated with a Strong Proinflammatory Response; Tissue Engineering: Part A Volume 17, (13 and 14): 1787-1800, 2011.

2-Zaky SH, Ottonello A, Strada P, Cancedda R and Mastrogiacomo M. Platelet lysate favours in vitro expansion of human bone marrow stromal cells for bone and cartilage engineering. J Tissue Eng Regen Med; 2: 472-481, 2008.

1-Additional references

1-Avanzini MA, Bernardo ME,Cometa AM, Perotti C, Zaffaroni N, Novara F, Visai L, Del Fante C, Ball LM. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord-blood and bone marrow-derived progenitors. Haematologica; 94 (12):1649-1660, 2009.

2-Bernardo ME, Avanzini MA , Perotti C, et al. Optimization of in vitro expansion of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for cell-therapy approaches: further insights in the search for a fetal calf serum substitute. J Cell Physiol; 211:121–130, 2007.

4-Bieback K, Hecker A, Kocaömer A, Lannert H, Schalmoser K, Strunk D, Klüter H, Human Alternatives to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Expansion of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Bone Marrow. Stem Cells; 27:2331–2341, 2009.

5-Blande IS, Bassaneze V, Lavini-Ramos C, Fae CC, Kalil J, Miyakawa AA, Schettert IT and KriegerJE. Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cell expansion in animal serum-free medium supplemented with autologous human platelet lysate. Transfusion; 49: 2680-2685, 2009.

6-Brunner D, Frank J, Appl H et al. Serum-free cell culture: the serum-free media interactive online database. ALTEX; 27, 53-62, 2010.

7-Capelli C, Domenghini M, Borleri G, Bellavita P, Poma R, Carobbio A, Mico C, Rambaldi A, Golay J and Introna M. Human platelet lysate allows expansion and clinical grade production of mesenchymal stromal cells from small samples of bone marrow aspirates or marrow filter washouts. Bone Marrow Transplantation; 40:785–791, 2007.

8-Carrancio S, Lopez-Holgado C, Sanchez-Guijo FM, Villarona E, Barbadoa V, Tabera S, Diez-Campelo M, Blanco J, San Miguel JF andConsuelo del Canizo M, Experimental. Optimization of mesenchymal stem cell expansion procedures by cell separation and culture conditions modification. Hematology; 36:1014–1021, 2008.

9-Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D. Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated percutaneoulsy implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Med Hypotheses; 71: 900-908, 2008.

10-Chan RK, Liu P, Lew DH et al..Expired liquid preserved platelet releasates retain proliferative activity. J Surg Res; 126, 55-58, 2005.

11-Chen B, Sun HH, Wang HG, Kong H, Chen FM, Yu Q. The effects of human platelet lysate on dental pulp stem cells derived from impacted human third molars. Biomaterials; in press Apr 17,2012

12.Coppinger JA, Cagney G, Toomey S et al. Characterization of the proteins released from activated platelets leads to localization of novel platelet proteins in human atherosclerotic lesions. Blood; 103: 2096–2104, 2004.

13-Crespo-Diaz R, Behfar A, Butler GW, Padley DJ, Sarr MG, Bartunek J, Dietz AB and Terzic A. Platelet Lysate Consisting of a Natural Repair Proteome Supports Human
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37-Ogino Y, Ayukawa Y, Kukita T and Koyano K. The contribution of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, and insulin-like growth factor-I in plate- let-rich plasma to the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 101, 724-729, 2006.

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1-Bhanot S, Alex JC. Current applications of platelet gels in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg. 2002; 18(1):27-33, 2002.

2-Cho JM, Lee YH, Baek RM, Lee SW. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on ultraviolet b-induced skin wrinkles in nude mice. JPRAs; 64: e31-e39, 2011.

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4-Du Toit DF et al. Shoulder surgeon and autologous cellular regeneration (ACR)-from bench to bed; Part 1-the link between the human fibroblast, connective tissue disorders and shoulder. International Journal of Shoulder Surgery; 1, 3 : 87-95, 2007.

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6-Ebstein JS. Revision surgical hair restoration: repair of undesirable results. Plast Reconstruct Surg; 104: 222-232, 1999.

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8-Danesh-Meyer MJ, Filstein MR, Shanaman R. Histological evaluation of sinus augmentation using platelet rich plasma (PRP): a case series. J Int Acad Periodontol; 3(2):48-56, 2001.

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57-Soffer E, Ouhayoun JP, Anagnostou F. Fibrin sealants and platelet preparations in bone and periodontal healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod ; 95:521–528,2003.

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25-Whitman DH, Berry RL and Green DM. Platelet gel: an alternative to fibrin glue with applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillo-Facial Surg; 55: 1294-1299, 1997.

6-References on Growth Factors in Wound healing and Orthopedic Surgery:

6.1 - Humans:

1-Adler SC, Kent KJ. Enhancing healing with growth factors. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am;10(2):129-146, 2002.

2-Alsousou J, Thompson M, Hulley P, Noble A, Willet K. The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in trauma and orthopaedic surgery: a review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 91(8):987-996,2009.

3-Anitua E, Andia I, Ardanza B, Nurden P, Nurden AT. Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost ; 91(1):4-15, 2004.

4-Anitua E, Andia I, Sánchez M, Azofra J, del Mar Zalduendo M, de la Fuente M, Nurden P, Nurden AT.Autologous preparations rich in growth factors promote proliferation and induce VEGF and HGF production by human tendon cells in culture.J Orthop Res ; 23:281–286,2005.

5-Anitua E, Sánchez M, Nurden AT, et al. Platelet-released growth factors enhance the secretion of hyaluronic acid and induce hepatocyte growth factor production by synovial fibroblasts from arthritic patients. Rheumatology (Oxford); 46(12):1769-1772, 2007.

6-Anitua E, Sánchez M, Nurden AT, Nurden P, Orive G, Andia I.New insights into and novel applications for platelet-rich fibrin therapies. Trends Biotechnol 24:227–234, 2006.

7-Anitua E, Sanchez M, Nurden AT, Zalduendo M, de la Fuente M, Azofra J, Andia I. Reciprocal actions of platelet secreted TGF-beta1 on the production of VEGF and HGF by human tendon cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 119:950–959,2007.

8-Arpornmaeklong P, Kochel M, Depprich R, Kübler NR, Würzler KK. Influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells. An in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 33:60–70,2004.

9-Aspenberg P. Stimulation of tendon repair: mechanical loading, GDFs and platelets. A mini-review. Int Orthop 31:783–789,2007.

10-Aspenberg P, Virchenko O. Platelet concentrate injection improves Achilles tendon repair in rats. Acta Orthop Scand 75:93–99,2004.

11-Barrientos s, Stojanovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H and Tomic-Canic M. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound Repair Regen ; 16: 585-601,2008.

12-Barrett S, Erredge S. Growth factors for chronic plantar fascitis.Podiatry Today; 7:37-42, 2004.

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14-Bennett NT and Schultz GS: Growth factors and wound healing: Part II. Role in normal and chronic wound healing. Am J Surg; 166: 74-81, 1993.

15-Berghoff W, Pietrzak W, Rhodes R. Platelet-rich plasma application during closure following total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics ;29(7):590-598, 2006.

16-Crovetti G, Martinelli G, Issi M, et al. Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds. Transfus Apher Sci ; 30(2):145-151, 2004.

17-Cullinane AB, O’Callaghan P, McDermott K, Keohane C, Cleary PE. Effects of autologous platelet concentrate and serum on retinal wound healing in an animal model. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 240(1):35-41, 2002.

18-Dallari D, Savarino L, Stagni C, et al. Enhanced tibial osteotomy healing with use of bone grafts supplemented with platelet gel or platelet gel and bone marrow stromal cells. J Bone Joint Surg Am ;89(11):2413-2420, 2007.

19-Delrossi AJ, Cernaianu AC, Vertrees RA, et al. Platelet-rich plasma reduces postoperative blood loss. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg;100(2):281-286, 2000.

20-De Mos M, van der Windt AE, Jahr H, van Schie HT, Weinans H, Verhaar JA, van Osch GJ. Can platelet-rich plasma enhance tendon repair? A cell culture study. Am J Sports Med; 36(6):1171-1178, 2008.

21-de Vos RJ, Weir A, van Schie HT, et al. Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA ; 303(2):144-149, 2010.

22-Driver VR, Hanft J, Fylling CP, Beriou JM. Autologel Diabetic Foot Ulcer Study Group. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of autologous platelet-rich plasma gel for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage ; 52(6):68-70,2006.

23-Edwards S, Calandruccio J. Autologous blood injections for refractory lateral epicondylitis. J Hand Surg Am ; 28(2):272-278, 2003.

24-Eppley BL, Woodell JE, Higgins J. Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg; 114(6):1502-1508, 2006.

25-Everts PA, Devilee RJ, Brown Mahoney C, et al. Platelet gel and fibrin sealant reduce allogenic blood transfusions in total knee arthroplasty. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 50(5):593-599, 2006.

26-Frechette JP, Martineau I, Gagnon G. Platelet rich plasmas: growth factor content and roles in wound healing. J Dent Res ; 84(5):434-439, 2005.

27-Fufa D, Shealy B, Jacobson M, Kevy S, Murray MM. Activation of platelet-rich plasma using soluble type I collagen. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ;66(4):684-690, 2008.

28-Gamradt SC, Rodeo SA, Warren RF. Platelet rich plasma in rotator cuff repair. Tech Orthop ; 22:26-33, 2007.

29-Gandhi A, Doumas C, O’Connor JP, Parsons JR, Lin SS. The effects of local platelet rich plasma delivery on diabetic fracture healing. Bone ; 38:540-546, 2006.

30-Gardner MJ, Demetrakopoulos D, Klepchick P, Mooar P. The efficacy of autologous platelet gel in pain control and blood loss in TKR: an analysis of the haemoglobin, narcotic requirement and range of motion. Int Orthop; 31:309-313,2007.

31-Han B, Woodell-May J, Ponticiello M, Yang Z, Nimni M. The effect of thrombin activation of platelet-rich plasma on demineralized bone matrix osteoconductivity. J Bone Joint Surg Am ;91(6): 1459-1470, 2009.

32-Ganio C, Tenewitz FE, Wilson RC, Moyles BG. The treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds using autologous platelet-derived growth factors. J Foot Ankle Surg ; 32(3):263-8, 1993.

33-Govindarajan B, Shah A, Cohen C, et al.Malignant transformation of human cells by constitutive expression of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. J Biol Chem; 280 (14):13936-13943.

34-Greenhalgh DG: The role of growth factors in wound healing. J Trauma Injury Infection Critical Care ; 41: 159-167, 1996.

35-Hammond JW, Hinton RY, Curl LA, Muriel JM, Lovering RM. Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med ; 37(6):1135- 1142, 2009.

36-Henderson JL, Cupp CL, Ross EV, et al. The effects of autologous platelet gel on wound healing. Ear Nose Throat J ; 82(8):598-602, 2003.

37-Hiramatsu T, Okamura T, Imai Y, et al. Effects of autologous platelet concentrate reinfusion after open heart surgery in patients with congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg ; 73(4):1282–1285, 2002.

38-Kajikawa Y, Morihara T, Sakamoto H, Matsuda K, Oshima Y, Yoshida A, Nagae M, Arai Y, Kawata M, Kubo T. Platelet-rich plasma enhances the initial mobilization of circulation-derived cells for tendon healing. J Cell Physiol; 215(3):837-845, 2008.

39-Kasemkijwattana C, Menetrey J, Bosch P, et al. Use of growth factors to improve muscle healing after strain injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 370:272-285, 2000.

40-Kanno T, Takahashi T, Tsujisawa T, Ariyoshi W, Nishihara T. Platelet-rich plasma enhances human osteoblast-like cell proliferation and differentiation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 63(3):362-369, 2005.

41-Kazakos K, Lyras DN, Verettas D, Tilkeridis K, Tryfonidis M. The use of autologous PRP gel as an aid in the management of acute trauma wounds. Injury; 40(8):801-805, 2009.

42-Kitoh H, Kitakoji T, Tsuchiya H, Katoh M, Ishiguro N. Transplantation of culture expanded bone marrow cells and platelet rich plasma in distraction osteogenesis of the long bones. Bone;40(2):522-528, 2007.

43-Knighton DR, Ciresi KF, Fiegel VD, Austin LL, Butler EL. Classification and treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. Successful treatment with autologous platelet-derived wound healing factors (PDWHF). Ann Surg ; 204(3):322-330, 1986.

44-Knighton DR, DoucetteM, Fiegel VD, Ciresi K, Butler E, Austin L. The use of platelet derived wound healing formula in human clinicaltrials. Prog Clin Biol Res ; 266:319-329, 1988.

45-Kon E, Filardo G, Delcogliano M, et al. Platelet-rich plasma: new clinical application. A pilot study for treatment of jumper’s knee. Injury ; 40(6):598-603,2009.

46-Krupski WC, Reilly LM, Perez S, Moss KM, Crombleholme PA, Rapp JH. A prospective randomized trial of autologous platelet-derived wound healing factors for treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds: a preliminary report. J Vasc Surg; 14(4):526-532, 1991.

47-Kunimoto BT. Growth factors in wound healing:the next great innovation? Ostomy Wound Manage ; 45(8):56-64, 1999.

48-Lindeboom JA, Mathura KR, Aartman IH, Kroon FH, Milstein DM, Ince C. Influence of the application of platelet-enriched plasma in oral mucosal wound healing. Clin Oral Implants Res ; 18(1):133-139, 2007.

49-Lynch SE, Nixon JC, Colvin RB, Antoniades HN. Role of platelet-derived growth factor in wound healing: synergistic effects with other growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 84(21):7696-7700, 1987.

50-Lynch SE, Colvin RB, Antoniades HN. Growth factors in wound healing. Single and synergistic effects on partial thickness porcine skin wounds. J Clin Invest ; 84: 640– 646, 1989.

51-Margolis DJ, Kantor J, Santanna J, Strom BL, Berlin JA. Effectiveness of platelet releasate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care; 24(3):483-8, 2001.

52-Margolis DJ, Bartus C, Hoffstad O, Malay S, Berlin JA. Effectiveness of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Wound Repair Regen ; 13(6):531-536, 2005.

53-Marx RE, Carlson ER, Eichstaedt RM, Schimmele SR, Strauss JE, Georgeff KR. Platelet-rich plasma: growth factor enhancement for bone grafts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod ; 85(6):638-646, 1998.

54- Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what is PRP and what is not PRP? Implant Dent ; 10(4):225-228, 2001.

55-Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use. J O Growth Factors; 24(3):165-171, 2006.

56-McAleer JP, Sharma S, Kaplan EM, Persich G. Use of autologous platelet concentrate in a nonhealing lower extremity wound. Adv Skin Wound Care; 9(7):354-363, 2006.

57-Mehta S, Watson JT. Platelet rich concentrate: basic science and current clinical applications. J Orthop Trauma ; 22(6):432-438. 2008.

58-Menetrey J, Kasemkijwattana C, Day CS, et al. Growth factors improve muscle healing in vivo. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000;82(1):131-137.

59-Mishra A, Pavelko T. Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma.Am J Sports Med; 34(11):1774-1778, 2006.

60-Mishra A, Woodall J Jr, Vieira A.Treatment of Tendon and Muscle using platelet-rich plasma, Clin Sports Med; 28(1):113-125,2009.

61-Mishra A, Woodall J Jr, Vieira A. Treatment of tendon and muscle using platelet-rich plasma. Clin Sports Med ; 28(1):113-125, 2009.

62-Molloy T, Wang Y, Murrell G. The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing. Sports Med ;33(5):381-394, 2003.

63-Nagumo A, Yasuda K, Numazaki H, et al. Effects of separate application of three growth factors (TGF-beta 1, EGF, and PDGF-BB) on mechanical properties of the in situ frozen-thawed anterior cruciate ligament. Clin Biomech ; 20(3):283-290, 2005.

64-Nurden AT,Nurden P, Sanchez M, Andia I and Anitua E. Platelets and wound healing.Front Biosci; 13:3532-3548,2008.

65-O’Connell SM, Impeduglia T, Hessler K, Wang XJ, Carroll RJ, Dardik H. Autologous platelet-rich fibrin matrix as cell therapy in the healing of chronic lower-extremity ulcers. Wound Repair Regen; 16(6):749-756, 2008.

66-Orrego M, Larrain C, Rosales J, et al. Effects of platelet concentrate and a bone plug on the healing of hamstring tendon in a bone tunnel. Arthroscopy ; 24(12):1373-1380, 2008.

67-Pietramaggiori G, Kaipainen A, Czeczuga JM, Wagner CT, Orgill DP. Freeze-dried platelet-rich plasma shows beneficial healing properties in chronic wounds.Wound Repair Regen ; 14(5):573-580, 2006.

68-Sampson S, Gerhardt M, Mandelbaum B. Platelet rich plasma injection grafts for musculoskeletal injuries: a review. Curr Rev Musculoskeletal Med ; 1(3-4):165-174, 2008.

69-Randelli PS, Arrigoni P, Cabitza P, Volpi P, Maffulli N. Autologous platelet rich plasma for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil; 30(20-22):1584-1589, 2008.

70-Reboa G, Gipponi M, Testa T, Giannini G, Scala M, Dalla Costa R, Strada P. Regenerative medicine for the definitive surgical repair of pilonidal sinus. A new method of wound reconstruction. In Vivo; 21(3):529-534, 2007.

71-Robson MC, Phillips LG, Thomason A, et al. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB for the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. Ann Plast Surg ; 29(3):193-201, 1992.

72-Roukis TS et al. Autologous platelet-rich plasma for wound and osseous healing. A review. Adv ther; 23: 218-237, 2006.

73-Rozman P, Bolta Z. Use of platelet growth factors in treating wounds and soft-tissue injuries. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat;16(4):156-165, 2007.

74-Salemi S, Rinaldi C, Manna F, Guarneri GF, Parodi PC. Reconstruction of lower leg skin ulcer with autologous adipose tissue and platelet-rich plasma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 61(12):1565-1567, 2008.

75-Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J, Andía I, Padilla S, Mujika I. Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet-rich fibrin matrices. Am J Sports Med; 35(2):245-251, 2007.

76-Sánchez M, Anitua E, Cugat R, et al. Nonunions treated with autologous preparation rich in growth factors. J Orthop Trauma ; 23(1):52-59, 2009.

77-Savarino L, Cenni E, Tarabusi C, et al. Evaluation of bone healing enhancement by lyophilized bone grafts supplemented with platelet gel: a standardized methodology in patients with tibial osteotomy for genu varus. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater; 76(2):364-372, 2006.

78-Schmidt MB, Chen EH, Lynch SE. A review of the effects of insulin-like growth factor and platelet derived growth factor on in vivo cartilage healing and repair. Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 14(5):403-412, 2006.

79-Schnabel LV, Mohammed HO, Miller BJ, et al. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances anabolic gene expression patterns in flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J Orthop Res; 25(2):230-240, 2007

80-Shah M, Revis D, Herrick S, Baillie R, Thorgeirson S, Ferguson M, and Roberts A. Role of elevated plasma transforming growth factor- beta1 levels in wound healing. Am J Pathol ; 154: 1115–1124, 1999.

81-Shimo T, Nakanishi T, Nishida T, Asano M, Kanyama M, Kuboki T, Tamatani T, Tezuka K, Takemura M, Matsumara T, Takigawa M. Connective tissue growth factor induces the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. J Biochem ; 126: 137–145, 1999.

82-Silva A, Sampaio R. Anatomic ACL reconstruction: does the platelet-rich plasma accelerate tendon healing? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 17(6):676-682, 2009.

83-Steed DL, Goslen JB, Holloway GA, Malone JM, Bunt TJ, Webster MW. Randomized prospective double-blind trial in healing chronic diabetic foot ulcers. CT-102 activated platelet supernatant, topical versus placebo. Diabetes Care ; 15(11):1598-1604, 1992.

84-Steed DL. Clinical evaluation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of lower extremity diabetic ulcers. Diabetic Ulcer Study Group. J Vasc Surg; 21(1):71-78, 1995.

85-Steed DL. Modifying the wound healing response with exogenous growth factors. Clin Plast Surg ; 25: 397–405, 1998.

86-Virchenko O, Aspenberg P. How can one platelet injection after tendon injury lead to a stronger tendon after 4 weeks? Interplay between early regeneration and mechanical stimulation. Acta Orthop ; 77(5):806-812, 2006.

87-Vogt PM, Lenhardt M, Wagner D, Jansen V, Krieg M, Steinau HU. Determination of endogenous growth factors in human wound fluid: temporal presence and profiles of secretion. Plast Reconstr Surg ; 102: 117–123, 1998.

88-Werner S. Keratinocyte growth factor: a unique player in epithelial repair processes.Cytokine Growth Factor ; Rev 2: 153–165, 1998.

89-Woodall J Jr, Tucci M, Mishra A, Benghuzzi H. Cellular effects of platelet rich plasma: a study on HL-60 macrophage-like cells, Biomed Sci Instrum; 43:266-271, 2007.

90-Wrotniak M, Bielecki T, Gazdzik TS. Current opinion about using the platelet-rich gel in orthopaedics and trauma surgery. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil ; 9(3):227-238, 2007.

91-Wu W, Zhang J, Dong Q, Liu Y, Mao T, Chen F. Platelet-rich plasma: a promising cell carrier for micro-invasive articular cartilage repair. Med Hypotheses ; 72(4):455-457, 2009.

92-Yamada Y, Ueda M, Naiki T, Takahashi M, Hata K, Nagasaka T. Autogenous injectable bone for regeneration with mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: tissue-engineered bone regeneration. Tissue Eng; 10:955-964, 2004.

93-Yu W, Naim JO, Lanzafame RJ. Expression of growth factors in early wound healing in rat skin. Lasers Surg Med ; 15: 281–289, 1994.

6.2 - Animals (Horses):

1-Bosch G, Moleman M, Barneveld A, van Weeren PR, van Schie HT. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on the neovascularization of surgically created equine superficial digital flexor tendon lesions. Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 21(4):554-561, 2011.

2-Bosch G, René van Weeren P, Barneveld A, van Schie HT. Computerised analysis of standardised ultrasonographic images to monitor the repair of surgically created core lesions in equine superficial digital flexor tendons following treatment with intratendinous platelet rich plasma or placebo. Vet J ; 187(1):92-98, 2011.

3-Bosch G, van Schie HT, de Groot MW, Cadby JA, van de Lest CH, Barneveld A, van Weeren PR. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on the quality of repair of mechanically induced core lesions in equine superficial digital flexor tendons: A placebo-controlled experimental study. J Orthop Res ; 28(2):211-217, 2010.

4-Carter CA, Jolly DG, Worden CE Sr., et al. Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes differentiation and regeneration during equine wound healing. Exp Mol Pathol; 74:244–255,2003.
5-Del Bue M, Riccò S, Ramoni R, Conti V, Gnudi G, Grolli S. Equine adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet concentrates: their association in vitro and in vivo. Vet Res Commun ; 32 Suppl 1:S : 51-55, 2008.

6-DeRossi R, Coelho AC, Mello GS, Frazílio FO, Leal CR, Facco GG, Brum KB. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses.
Acta Cir Bras ; 24(4):276-281, 2009.

7-Fennis JPM, Stoelinga PJW, Jansen JA. Mandibular reconstruction:a clinical and radiographic animal study on the use of autogenous scaffolds and platelet-rich plasma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg;31:281–286,2002.

8-Geburek F, Stadler P. [Regenerative therapy for tendon and ligament disorders in horses. Terminology, production, biologic potential and in vitro effects]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere ; 39(6):373-383. 2011. German

9-Torricelli P, Fini M, Filardo G, Tschon M, Pischedda M, Pacorini A, Kon E, Giardino R. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of musculoskeletal overuse
injuries in competition horses. Int Orthop ; 35(10):1569-1576, 2011.

10-Textor JA, Norris JW, Tablin F. Effects of preparation method, shear force, and exposure to collagen on release of growth factors from equine platelet-rich
plasma. Am J Vet Res ; 72(2):271-278, 2011.

11-McCarrel T, Fortier L. Temporal growth factor release from platelet-rich plasma, trehalose lyophilized platelets, and bone marrow aspirate and their effect on tendon and ligament gene expression. J Orthop Res ; 27(8):1033-1042, 2009.

12-Schnabel LV, Mohammed HO, Miller BJ, McDermott WG, Jacobson MS, Santangelo KS, Fortier LA. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances anabolic gene expression patterns in flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J Orthop Res ; 25(2):230-240,2007.

13-Schnabel LV, Sonea HO, Jacobson MS, Fortier LA. Effects of platelet rich plasma and acellular bone marrow on gene expression patterns and DNA content of
equine suspensory ligament explant cultures. Equine Vet J ; 40(3):260-265, 2008.

14-Waselau M, Sutter WW, Genovese RL, Bertone AL. Intralesional injection of platelet-rich plasma followed by controlled exercise for treatment of midbody
suspensory ligament desmitis in Standardbred racehorses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 15;232(10):1515-1520, 2008.

15-Zhang YZ, Da WM. [Experimental study of platelet-rich plasma optimizing mesenchymal stem cells culture]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Hematology); 27(6):403-405, 2006. Chinese.

16-Smith JJ, Ross MW, Smith RK. Anabolic effects of acellular bone marrow, platelet rich plasma, and serum on equine suspensory ligament fibroblasts in
vitro. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol; 19(1):43-47, 2006.